The Medicine Department at Virginia State is actively involved in research relating to the topic of reincarnation and the psychological aspects to nural behaviour. The list can be found online along with more information on the subject a their site here
Books Recommended by Division Staff
The following is a list of books on various aspects of psychical research (also known as parapsychology) that are recommended by the faculty at the Division of Perceptual Studies. There are books on psychical research in general, many of which cover a variety of topics, and books on various specific topics as well.
- psychical research in general
- on after-death communications (ADCs)
- apparitions and hauntings
- deathbed visions
- extra-sensory perception (ESP)
- the history of psychical research
- the mind-body relationship and concepts of reality
- near-death experiences (NDEs)
- out-of-body experiences (OBEs)
- physical phenomena (psychokinesis, etc.)
- survival after death
- other selected topics
Many of these books are out-of-print (designated by an OOP at the end of the entry) but may be available through public or university libraries or from used book stores. The OOP designations are based on the March 2000 Books-in-Print database.
While some of the books listed here are by division faculty most are not. Books and articles written by division faculty are listed in the Publications section of this Web site.
1. Broughton, Richard S. Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine, 1992. A good general introduction to the problems, findings and implications of the science of parapsychology.
2. Chauvin, Rémy. Parapsychology: When the Irrational Rejoins Science. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1985. Review of selected aspects of modern parapsychological research. OOP
3. Edge, Hoyt L., Morris, Robert L., Rush, Joseph H., and Palmer, John. Foundations of Parapsychology: Exploring the Boundaries of Human Capability. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986. A more advanced survey of methods and findings in modern parapsychology. OOP
4. Gurney, Edmund, Myers, Frederic, and Podmore, Frank. Phantasms of the Living. 2 vols. North Stratford, NH: Ayer Company Publishers, 1975. A classic. The first major publication (in 1886) of the Society for Psychical Research, primarily reporting hundreds of cases investigated by the authors, but also indispensable reading for anyone seriously interested in psychical research and its problems and methods for investigating spontaneous cases.
5. Hintze, Naomi A. and Pratt, J. Gaither. The Psychic Realm: What Can You Believe? New York: Random House, 1975. The book covers a wide range of psychic phenomena. The first author describes case material in popular language in the first part of each chapter, and the second author then discusses each topic from the scientific point of view. OOP
6. Irwin, H.J. An Introduction to Parapsychology, 3rd edition. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999. Another general introduction to the field, with chapters on such special topics as NDEs, OBEs, apparitions, poltergeists, and reincarnation.
7. Jahn, Robert G. and Dunne, Brenda J. Margins of Reality: The Role of Consciousness in the Physical World. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987. OOP
8. Krippner, S. (ed.), Advances in Parapsychological Research, 8 vols. An ongoing series of articles reviewing recent research on a wide variety of topics of current interest to parapsychologists.
- Vol. 1 Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books 1977
- Vol. 2 Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books 1978
- Vol. 3 Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books 1982
- Vol. 4 Jefferson, NC: McFarland 1984 OOP
- Vol. 5 Jefferson, NC: McFarland 1987 OOP
- Vol. 6 Jefferson, NC: McFarland 1990 OOP
- Vol. 7 Jefferson, NC: McFarland 1994
- Vol. 8 Jefferson, NC: McFarland 1997 OOP
9. Murphy, Gardner (with Laura A. Dale). Challenge of Psychical Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979. (Harper and Row, 1961, 1970). An overview of spontaneous cases, experimental work, and the postmortem survival question by a leading psychologist.
10. Myers, Frederic W.H. Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death. North Stratford, NH: Ayer Company Publishers, 1975. (Originally published in 1903). The other major classic of early psychical research, and indeed of psychology, in which Myers describes a wide range of subconscious psychological phenomena, including dissociation, sleep, genius, hypnotism, automatisms, and trance, within the context of his theory of human personality as extending beyond the confines of normal psychophysiological functioning.
11. Radin, Dean. The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. New York: HarperEdge, 1997.
12. Rhine, Louisa E. The Invisible Picture: A Study of Psychic Experiences. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1981. Summary of the author's research with claims of spontaneous psychic experiences. OOP
13. Rhine, Louisa E. Psi: What Is It? New York: Harper and Row, 1975. A comprehensive general survey of the field of parapsychology, written by one of the founders of experimental parapsychology at Duke University. OOP
14. Stokes, Douglas M. The Nature of Mind: Parapsychology and the Role of Consciousness in the Physical World. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1997.
15. West, Donald J. Psychical Research Today. London: Gerald Duckworth, 1954. A short, readable survey of the whole field. OOP
16. White, Rhea. Parapsychology: Sources of Information 1973-1989. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990. An update of number 18, below. OOP
17. White, Rhea. Surveys in Parapsychology. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1976. A collection of review articles on various aspects of parapsychology, providing comprehensive surveys of the periodical literature of the field.
18. White, Rhea A. and Dale, Laura A. Parapsychology: Sources of Information. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1973. Lists a large number of publications in the field of psychical research/parapsychology and directs readers to additional sources. OOP
19. Wolman, B. B., Ed. Handbook of Parapsychology. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1985 (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977). A large book with technical papers written by specialists mainly for scientists, but containing abundant details and references to other publications for readers wishing to study the subject more deeply. OOP
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1. Guggenheim, Bill and Guggenheim, Judy. Hello From Heaven. New York: Bantam Books, 1995.
2. LaGrand, Louis E. After Death Communication: Final Farewells. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications, 1997.
3. Wright, Sylvia Hart. When Spirits Come Calling: The Open-minded Skeptic's Guide to After Death Contacts. Blue Dolphin Publishing, 2002.
4. Arcangel, Dianne. Afterlife Encounters: Ordinary People, Extraordinary Experiences. Hampton Roads Publishing Co. Inc, 2005
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1. Bayless, R. Apparitions and Survival of Death. New Hyde Park, NY: Basic Books, 1973. OOP
2. Bennett, E. Apparitions and Haunted Houses. Ann Arbor: Gryphon Books, 1971. OOP
3. Finucane, R.C. Appearances of the Dead: A Cultural History of Ghosts. New York: Prometheus, 1984. OOP
4. Flammarion, Camille. Haunted Houses. Detroit: Gale Research, 1971 (originally published in 1924). OOP
5. Green, Celia, and McCreery, Charles. Apparitions. New York: State Mutual Book & Periodical Service, Ltd., 1989.
6. MacKenzie, Andrew. Apparitions and Ghosts. London: Arthur Barker, 1971. The author reports nearly fifty new cases of apparitions investigated by him. OOP
7. MacKenzie, Andrew. Hauntings and Apparitions. London: Heinemann, 1982. Review of classic cases and main ideas on apparitions and hauntings. Emphasis on work of the London-based Society for Psychical Research. OOP
8. Salter, W.H. Ghosts and Apparitions. London: G. Bell and Sons, 1938. OOP
9. Tyrrell, G. N. M. Apparitions. London: Society for Psychical Research, 1973. OOP
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1. Barrett, William, Sir. Death-bed Visions: The Psychical Experiences of the Dying. New York: Aquarian Press, 1988 (originally published in 1926).
2. Osis, Karlis, and Haraldsson, Erlendur. At the Hour of Death: A New Look at Evidence for Life after Death, 3rd edition. Norwalk, CT: Hastings House, 1997. OOP
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1. Heywood, Rosalind. Beyond the Reach of Sense: An Inquiry into Extra-Sensory Perception. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1974. A readable survey of parapsychology including the earlier investigations bearing on survival of human personality after death. OOP
2. Pratt, Joseph Gaither. Parapsychology: an Insider's View of ESP. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977 (originally published by New York: Dutton, 1968). A very readable and largely autobiographical account, first written in 1963, describing the many areas of parapsychology which the author personally investigated, including accounts of his famous ESP experiments with Pearce and Woodruff at Duke University, his investigation of the Seaford poltergeist case, and his research on animal ESP. OOP
3. Sinclair, Upton. Mental Radio. New York: New York: Time-Life Books, 1991 (originally published by Charles C Thomas, 1930, 1962). Upton Sinclair's report of experiments in extrasensory perception carried out with his wife. Introduction by William McDougall and short preface by Albert Einstein.
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1. Beloff, John. Parapsychology: A Concise History. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997. A brief historical survey of the field from its origins in renaissance magic, mesmerism, and spiritualism, through 19th-century psychical research, early 20th-century psychical research and experimental parapsychology, to more recent developments.
2. Gauld, Alan. The Founders of Psychical Research. New York: Schocken Books, Inc, 1968. OOP
3. Grattan-Guiness, Ivor. Psychical Research: A Guide to Its History, Principles and Practices. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian Press, 1982. OOP
4. Haynes, Renée. The Society for Psychical Research, 1882-1982: A History. London: MacDonald & Co., 1982. OOP
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1. Ducasse, C.J. A Critical Examination of the Belief in Life After Death. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1961. OOP
2. Ducasse, C.J. Nature, Life, and Death. LaSalle, IL: Open Court Publishing, 1951. OOP
3. Ducasse, C.J. Paranormal Phenomena, Science & Life after Death (Parapsychological Monographs No. 8). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1969.
4. Gauld, Alan. Mediumship and Survival: A Century of Investigations. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1984. Review of different types of evidence for survival, classic cases and mediums, theories, and methodological and philosophical problems.
5. Penfield, W. The Mystery of the Mind. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975. OOP
6. Popper, K.R., and Eccles, J.C. The Self and Its Brain: An Argument for Interactionism. New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1985.
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1. Holden, Janice, Greyson, Bruce, James, Debbie. The Handbook of Near-Death Experiences. Santa Barbara, CA : Praeger Publishers, 2009.
2. Fenwick, Peter, and Fenwick, Elizabeth. The Truth in the Light: An Investigation of Over 300 Near-Death Experiences. New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1997.
3. Greyson, Bruce, and Flynn, Charles (eds.) The Near-Death Experience: Problems, Prospects, Perspectives. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1984.
4. Moody, R.A., Jr. Life After Life. New York: Bantam Books, 1984 (originally published by Mockingbird Books in 1975). The first modern account of near-death experiences by the man who coined the term. OOP
5. Ring, Kenneth. Heading Toward Omega: In Search of the Meaning of the Near-Death Experience. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1984.
6. Ring, Kenneth. Life at Death: A Scientific Investigation of the Near-Death Experience. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1980. An in-depth examination of the NDE, derived from the author's study of over 100 cases. OOP
7. Sabom, Michael B. Recollections of Death: A Medical Investigation. New York: Harper & Row, 1982. A cardiologist's study of NDEs, primarily among his own patients, including a particularly interesting account of some cases apparently involving the patient's paranormal awareness of objectively verifiable events. OOP
8. Zaleski, C. Otherworld Journeys: Accounts of Near-Death Experiences in Medieval and Modern Times. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
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1. Blackmore, Susan J. Beyond the Body: An Investigation of Out-of-the-Body Experiences. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1991. Review of spontaneous and experimental studies of OBEs. Theories and concepts are also discussed. Blackmore is somewhat negative about paranormal features of OBEs.
2. Gabbard, Glen O., and Twemlow, Stuart W. With the Eyes of the Mind: An Empirical Analysis of Out-of-Body States. New York: Praeger, 1984. OOP
3. Irwin, Harvey J. Flight of Mind: A Psychological Study of the Out-of-Body Experience. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985. An in-depth examination of the OBE, in support of the author's hypothesis that the OBE is an imaginal process rather than actual spatial separation of mind and body. OOP
4. Mitchell, Janet L. Out-of-Body Experiences. New York: Ballantine, 1987. Not so comprehensive or critical as Blackmore's (1), but more positive in its interpretations.
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1. Robinson, Diana. To Stretch a Plank: A Survey of Psychokinesis. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981. Review of laboratory and field studies of paranormal physical phenomena. Physical mediums and theoretical considerations also receive attention.
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1. Gauld, Alan, and Cornell, A. D. Poltergeists. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982. OOP
2. Goss, M. Poltergeists: An Annotated Bibliography of Works in English, circa 1880-1975. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.
3. Owen, A.R.G. Can We Explain the Poltergeist? New York: Helix Press, 1964. OOP
4. Roll, William G. The Poltergeist. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1976. (Signet, 1972). A survey of poltergeist cases investigated by the author, including a discussion of possible explanations for these phenomena. OOP
5. Thurston, H. Ghosts and Poltergeists. Ridgefield, CT: Roman Catholic Books, 1998 (originally published by Burns Oates, London in 1953).
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1. Tucker, Jim. Life Before Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children's Memories of Previous Lives.New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005. This book is a review of our research with children who report memories of previous lives written for the general public. Read a review of this book as it appeared in the Journal of Scientific Exploration , 19 (4), 2005 , by Harvard Biologist Michael Levin.
2. Shroder, Tom. Old Souls: The Scientific Evidence for Past Lives. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. In 1997 Dr. Stevenson agreed to let Tom Shroder, an editor at the Washington Post, travel with him through India, Lebanon and the United States as he investigated cases of children who seemed to remember previous lives. This is Shroder's book about those experiences. Now out in paperback as Old Souls: Compelling Evidence from Children Who Remember Past Lives from Fireside Books.
3. Stevenson, Ian. Children Who Remember Previous Lives: A Question of Reincarnation, revised ed., 2001. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company (originally published by University Press of Virginia, 1987). Dr. Stevenson describes, for the general reader, research conducted over the past forty years. He also addresses some of the questions frequently asked about these cases.
4. Stevenson, Ian. Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1974 (originally published as Vol. 26, Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1966). Detailed reports of twenty cases of children (from five different countries) who claimed to remember previous lives.
5. Stevenson, Ian. Where Reincarnation and Biology Intersect. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997. A 200 page synopsis of Dr. Stevenson's 2 volume, 2000+ page Reincarnation and Biology.
1. Griffin, David Ray. Parapsychology, Philosophy and Spirituality: A Postmodern Exploration. Albany, State University of New York Press, 1997.
2. Paterson, R. W. K. Philosophy and the Belief in a Life after Death. Library of Religion and Philosophy series. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
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1. Stevenson, Ian. Telepathic Impressions. Ann Arbor: Books on Demand, [no date given] originally published by University Press of Virginia in 1970).
2. Ullman, Montague, and Krippner, Stanley (with Alan Vaughan). Dream Telepathy. 2nd ed., Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1989. A report of the experiments on telepathic dreams conducted at Maimonides Medical Center in New York, including a limited survey of spontaneous dream telepathy cases.
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OTHER SELECTED TOPICS
1. Edward F. Kelly, Emily Williams Kelly, Adam Crabtree, Alan Gauld, Michael Grosso, and Bruce Greyson have co-authored Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century. Current mainstream scientific opinion holds that all aspects of human mind and consciousness are generated by physical processes occurring in the brain. This book demonstrates with empirical evidence that this reductive materialism is not only incomplete but false.
2. Gauld, Alan. A History of Hypnotism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
3. LeShan, Lawrence. The Medium, The Mystic, and the Physicist. Viking Press, 1995 and 1974. OOP
4. Stevenson, Ian. Unlearned Language: New Studies in Xenoglossy. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1984.
5. Rhine, Louisa E. Hidden Channels of the Mind. New York: Time-Life Books, 1990 (originally published in 1961). A summary and discussion of reports of spontaneous cases, not investigated but taken at face value as sent in by (usually) the person having the experience. Gives interesting indications of the patterns in the cases. OOP
RESEARCH ON REINCARNATION AND RELATED RELATED PHENOMENA:
Books available through the publisher or booksellers (those with links) or through the Division of Perceptual Studies (without links):
Life Before Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children's Memories of Previous Lives by Dr. Jim B.Tucker. St. Martin's Press, September, 2005. 256 pages. ISBN:0312321376 (hardcover). This book reviews our forty years of research with children who report memories of previous lives for the general public. Dr. Tucker, who currently directs this research, describes recent American cases as well as Dr. Stevenson’s classic cases in Asia. Read a review of this book as it appeared in the Journal of Scientific Exploration , 19 (4), 2005 , by Harvard Biologist Michael Levin.
Larry Dossey, M.D., author of The Extraordinary Healing Power of Ordinary Things , calls Life Before Life “extraordinarily important” and C. Norman Shealy, M.D., author of Youthful Aging—Secret of the Fountain , notes that it “adds to the increasingly impressive science of consciousness and the continuity of mind/memory.”
In 1997 Dr. Stevenson agreed to let Tom Shroder, an editor at the Washington Post, travel with him through India, Lebanon and the United States as he investigated cases of children who seemed to remember previous lives. Shroder, with Dr. Stevenson's permission, wrote a book based on those experiences called Old Souls: The Scientific Evidence for Past Lives. It was published by Simon and Schuster in 1999 and is available through any bookstore or online book seller. This link is for the hardcover edition, ISBN 0-684-85192-X.
Books on Reincarnation by Dr. Ian Stevenson
1. Chapter 19 "Reincarnation" by Dr. Ian Stevenson, in Parapsychology: Research on Exceptional Experiences , Edited by Jane Henry. Routledge, 2005. ISBN: 0415213606 (paperback). This book is an overview of current thinking in the field of parapsychology. Leading researchers from the U.S. and U.K. offer their expertise regarding current psychical research. Beginning with an introduction to the methodology used, the book addresses topics such as telepathy, precognition, psychokinesis, healing, apparitions, out-of-body experiences, and reincarnation.
2. European Cases of the Reincarnation Type by Dr. Ian Stevenson. McFarland & Company, 2003. 278 pages. ISBN: 0786414588 (hardcover). This book examines eight European cases from the first half of the twentieth century and 32 European cases from the second half of the twentieth century. It also includes a section on the belief in reincarnation among Europeans as well as a section comparing these beliefs with those of other countries and cultures.
A review of Dr. Stevenson's book European Cases of the Reincarnation Type appears in the American Journal of Psychiatry 162:4, April 2005.
3. Children Who Remember Previous Lives: A Question of Reincarnation, revised edition, by Dr. Ian Stevenson. McFarland & Company, 2001. 345 pages. ISBN 0-7864-0913-4 (paperback). Dr. Stevenson describes, for the general reader, research conducted over the past forty years. He also addresses some of the questions frequently asked about these cases. New material related to birthmarks and birth defects, independent replication studies, a critique of criticisms, and recent developments in genetic study, as well as several more recent cases, are included. (The first edition, now out of print, was published by University Press of Virginia in 1987.)
4. Reincarnation and Biology: A Contribution to the Etiology of Birthmarks and Birth Defects by Dr. Ian Stevenson. Praeger Publishers, 1997. 2 volume set, 2080 pages. ISBN 0-275-95282-7. Dr. Stevenson's latest work, and his most comprehensive to date. Detailed studies of over 230 cases from around the world. The book focuses on the birthmarks and birth defects of these subjects which seem to be related to an experience or experiences in a previous life, particularly to violent death. (Note: Vol. 2 is currently out of stock; when more information is available it will be posted here.)
5. Where Reincarnarion and Biology Intersect by Dr. Ian Stevenson. Praeger Publishers, 1997. 248 pages. A synopsis of Reincarnation and Biology: A Contribution to the Etiology of Birthmarks and Birth Defects . Available in two editions: hardcover (ISBN 0-275-95188-X) and paperback (ISBN 0-275-95189-8) .
6. Unlearned Language: New Studies in Xenoglossy by Dr. Ian Stevenson. University of Virginia Press, 1984. ISBN: 0813909945 (hardback). (University Press code "STUN".) Authentic instances of speaking a language that has not been learned normally suggest that another personality (perhaps one of a previous life) has learned the language. Dr. Stevenson presents lengthy reports of two such cases.
7. Cases of the Reincarnation Type. Vol. IV, Twelve Cases in Thailand and Burma by Dr. Ian Stevenson. University of Virginia Press, 1983. This book is officially out of print but the Division has a few copies at $30.00 each plus shipping. Please contact us for ordering details .
8. Cases of the Reincarnation Type. Vol. III, Twelve Cases in Lebanon and Turkey by Dr. Ian Stevenson. University of Virginia Press, 1980. This book is officially out of print but the Division has a few copies at $30.00 each plus shipping. Please contact us for ordering details.
9. Cases of the Reincarnation Type. Vol. II, Ten Cases in Sri Lanka by Dr. Ian Stevenson. University of Virginia Press, 1977. This book is officially out of print but the Division has a few copies at $30.00 each plus shipping. Please contact us for ordering details.
10. Cases of the Reincarnation Type. Vol. I, Ten Cases in India by Dr. Ian Stevenson. University of Virginia Press, 1975. Meticulous and extended investigation of cases. This book is officially out of print but the Division has a few copies at $30.00 each plus shipping. Please contact us for ordering details.
11. Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation by Dr. Ian Stevenson. University of Virginia Press, 1974, 2nd edition, (the paper back edition, ISBN: 0813908728, University Press code "STTCP" is currently available.) This is Dr. Stevenson's first book on the subject of cases of the reincarnation type
12. Xenoglossy: A Review and Report of A Case by Dr. Ian Stevenson , University of Virginia Press, 1974. This book is officially out of print but the Division has a few copies at $25.00 each plus shipping. Please contact us for ordering details
Articles on Reincarnation and related topics available through the Division of Perceptual Studies:
STE1. The Evidence for Survival from Claimed Memories of Former Incarnations by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for. Psychical Research 54:51-71 and 95-117, 1960.) Dr. Stevenson's early essay about cases suggestive of reincarnation and several interpretations of them.
STE2. Some Questions Related to Cases of the Reincarnation Type by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 68:395-416, 1974.) A discussion of some frequently asked questions about reincarnation.
STE6. A Preliminary Report of a New Case of Responsive Xenoglossy: The Case of Gretchen by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 70:65-77, 1976.) A report of a case in which the subject, under hypnosis, spoke and conversed in German, a language that she seems not to have learned normally.
STE3. The Explanatory Value of the Idea of Reincarnation by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 164:305-326, 1977.) A consideration of the ways in which the concept of reincarnation might supplement those of heredity and environment in explaining some poorly understood aspects of human behavior and development.
STE9. The Southeast Asian Interpretation of Gender Dysphoria: An Illustrative Case Report by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 165:201-208, 1977.) Suggesting that gender identity confusion may derive from influences of a previous life as a member of the opposite sex, Dr. Stevenson reports the case of a girl who claims to remember a previous life as a man.
STE7. A Preliminary Report on an Unusual Case of the Reincarnation Type with Xenoglossy by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society of Psychical Research 74: 331-348, 1980.) A report of a case of a woman who periodically assumes a second personality, speaking only a language she does not know in her normal state. She has also given verified details about another life she claims to have lived.
STE17. American Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 171:742-748, 1983.) Report of an analysis of 79 cases of American children who claim to remember a previous life.
STE15. A Review and Analysis of "Unsolved" Cases of the Reincarnation Type: I. Introduction and Illustrative Case Reports by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Emily Williams Cook et al. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 77:45-62, 1983.) Brief reports of 7 cases of the reincarnation type in which no deceased person corresponding to the child subject's statements has been found.
STE16. A Review and Analysis of "Unsolved" Cases of the Reincarnation Type: II. Comparison of Features of Solved and Unsolved Cases by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Emily Williams Cook et al. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 77:115-135, 1983.) Report of an analysis and comparison of 856 solved and unsolved reincarnation cases with regard to 9 important features.
STE20. The Belief in Reincarnation Among the Igbo of Nigeria by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Asian and African Studies XX:13-30, 1985.) A summary of the belief in reincarnation among the Igbo with a description of the repeater children, called ogbanjes by the Igbo people.
STE21. Characteristics of Cases of the Reincarnation Type Among the Igbo of Nigeria by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Asian and African Studies XXI:204-216, 1986.) A description of the principle features found in 57 cases of the reincarnation type occurring among the Igbo people. Several tables compare the incidence of the main features of the cases in nine or ten different cultures.
STE25. Indian Cases of the Reincarnation Type Two Generations Apart by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Satwant Pasricha. (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 54(809):239-246, 1987.) Cases of the reincarnation type from the early years of this century show features closely resembling those of cases whose subjects were born after 1965.
STE23. Deception and Self-Deception in Cases of the Reincarnation Type: Seven Illustrative Cases in Asia by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Satwant Pasricha and Godwin Samararatne. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 82:1-31, 1988.) Detailed reports of 7 cases of the reincarnation type in Asia that seemed to be authentic at first but, on investigation, proved to be best interpreted as instances of deception or self-deception.
STE26. Two Correlates of Violent Death in Cases of the Reincarnation Type by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. N. K. Chadha. (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 55(811):71-79, 1988.) In the cases of children remembering previous lives that ended violently the interval between death of the deceased person whose life is remembered and the subject's birth is shorter, on average, than in cases having a natural death in the previous life. Also, children remembering violent deaths tend to speak about the previous life at an earlier age than do children who remember lives that ended naturally.
STE27a. Three New Cases of the Reincarnation Type in Sri Lanka with Written Records Made before Verification by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 176:741, 1988.) Short summaries of three recent cases of the valuable type in which the child's statements were recorded in writing before they were verified.
STE27b. Three New Cases of the Reincarnation Type in Sri Lanka with Written Records Made before Verification by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Godwin Samararatne. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 2:217-238, 1988.) A longer version of 15a, including more detail about the 3 cases reported.
STE29. A Case of the Possession Type in India with Evidence of Paranormal Knowledge by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Satwant Pasricha, and Dr. Nicholas McClean-Rice. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 3:81-101, 1989.) Report of a case of a woman who, after an apparent trance state, awoke claiming to be a woman, unknown to the subject and her family, who had died 2 months earlier.
STE31. A Case of Severe Birth Defects Possibly Due to Cursing by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 3:201-212, 1989.) Report of cases in which a child's congenital deformities appear to be related to a curse directed toward its mother during or before her pregnancy. Three cases of this type, including one published by a pediatrician in 1960, are briefly reviewed, and then a new case reported.
STE34. Phobias in Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 4:243-254, 1990.) A discussion of the phobias that occur among many children who seem to remember a previous life, and some possible explanations for these phobias.
STE38. A New Look at Maternal Impressions: An Analysis of 50 Published Cases and Reports of Two Recent Examples by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 6:353-373, 1992.) An analysis of 50 cases reported in the medical literature of instances in which a pregnant woman's experience of seeing (usually) a deformity on another person apparently resulted in a similar deformity (such as a birthmark or birth defect) on her baby. Two cases investigated by Dr. Stevenson are also reported.
STE39. Birthmarks and Birth Defects Corresponding to Wounds on Deceased Persons by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 7:403-410, 1993.) A short summary of research on the cases of children who claim to remember previous lives and who have birthmarks or birth defects that correspond to wounds in the claimed previous life.
STE40. Regression Article. A Case of the Psychotherapist's Fallacy: Hypnotic Regression to "Previous Lives" by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 36:188-193, 1994.) Hypnotic regression to presumed "previous lives" rarely evokes any evidence of real memories. Most of the "previous personalities" brought out during hypnosis are either fantasies or devised from historical novels, the sources of which can sometimes be identified.
STE45. Does the Socio-Psychological Hypothesis Explain Cases of the Reincarnation Type? by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Sybo Schouten. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorder. 186:504-506, 1998.) Cases of the reincarnation type (in India and Sri Lanka) in which a written record of the subject's statements was made only after the families concerned had met did not have more statements and more correct ones than cases in which a written record was made before the statements were verified.
STE47. Do Cases of the Reincarnation Type Show Similar Features Over Many Years? A Study of Turkish Cases a Generation Apart Dr. Jürgen Keil and Dr. Ian Stevenson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 13(2):189-198, 1999.) In Turkey the features of 45 cases studied by one investigator were compared with the features of 45 other cases studied nearly a generation later by another investigator. Overall, the two groups of cases showed closely similar features. The cases appear to be a natural phenomenon occurring over many years.
STE49. Good summary article on reincarnation. The Phenomenon of Claimed Memories of Previous Lives: Possible Interpretations and Importance by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Medical Hypotheses 54(4):652-659, 2000.) The hypothesis of previous lives can contribute to the further understanding of several conditions, disorders, or abnormalities (such as phobias observed in early infancy, gender identity disorder, and behavioral and physical differences in one-egg [monozygotic] twins) that are not adequately explained by genetic and/or environmental influences.
STE51. The Stability of Assessments of Paranormal Connections in Reincarnation-Type Cases by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Jürgen Keil. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 14(3):365-382, 2000.) Fifteen cases of children who claimed to remember a previous life were investigated twice and independently with an average interval of 22 years between the investigations. The reports were evaluated for evidence of a paranormal process. With the lapse of time informants lost some details; but with one possible exception there was no evidence of increased claims of paranormality in the later investigations.
REI25. An Unusual Birthmark Case Thought to be Linked to a Person Who Had Previously Died by Dr. Jürgen Keil and Dr. Jim B. Tucker. (Psychological Reports 87:1067-1074, 2000.) A report of a case of a Burmese subject who was born with birthmarks and birth defects that were thought to be linked to the death of his mother's first husband in a parachute accident.
REI26. A Scale to Measure the Strength of Children's Claims of Previous Lives: Methodology and Initial Findings by Dr. Jim B. Tucker. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 14(4):571-581, 2000.) 799 cases of children who claim to remember a previous life were analyzed using a scale that measured the strength of the claims. The analysis showed that in the stronger cases, the children tended to start talking about the previous life at an earlier age; they demonstrated more emotion in recalling the past life; and they showed greater facial resemblance to the deceased individual that they were said to have been.
STE52. Unusual Play in Young Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives. by Dr. Ian Stevenson ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 14(4):557-570, 2000.) Children who, when they learn to speak express memories of previous lives, frequently engage in play that is unusual and has no model or other obvious stimulus in their family. The play seems to repeat the vocation or an avocation of the person whose life the child seems to remember. Sometimes the play reenacts the cause of death, such as drowning, of that person.
STE53. Ropelike Birthmarks on Children Who Claim to Remember Past Lives. by Dr. Ian Stevenson (Psychological Reports 89:142-144, 2001.) Description of birthmarks having the pattern of strands of a rope in a second known case includes some verification of the correspondence between the birthmarks and injuries from ropes on an identified deceased person.
REI29. Can Cultural Beliefs Cause a Gender Identity Disorder? by Dr. Jim B. Tucker and Dr. Jürgen Keil. (Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality 13(2):21-30, 2001.) Report of a child in Thailand who was born with a birthmark that matched a mark made on the body of his deceased grandmother. As he got older, he claimed to be his grandmother reborn, and he demonstrated cross-gender behavior.
STE54. The Similarity of Features of Reincarnation Type Cases over Many Years: A Third Study by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Erlendur Haraldsson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 17(2):283-289, 2003.) The principal features of two series of cases suggestive of reincarnation in Lebanon were compared. The series were investigated about a generation apart by two different investigators. In three important features the two series were closely similar; in other features they were not similar, probably because of differences in the thoroughness of investigation in the two series.
REI31. Cases of the Reincarnation Type with Memories from the Intermission Between Lives by Poonam Sharma and Dr. Jim B. Tucker. ( Journal of Near-Death Studies 23(2):101-118, 2005.) A minority of children who claim to remember previous lives also claim to remember events between lives. This analysis of statements from 35 Burmese subjects reveals patterns in the memories that they described. A comparison of these reports to reports of near-death experiences indicates significant areas of overlap.
REI32. Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives: Cases with Written Records Made before the Previous Personality Was Identified by Dr. Jürgen Keil and Dr. Jim B. Tucker. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 19(1): pp. 91-101, 2005.) A case is presented in which a written record, made before the deceased individual was identified, documented that the numerous statements made by a Turkish boy about a previous life were accurate for the life of a man who lived 500 miles away and died 50 years before the boy was born. Other similar cases are reviewed.
STE55. Children of Myanmar Who Behave like Japanese Soldiers: A Possible Third Element in Personality by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Jürgen Keil. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 19(2): pp. 171-183, 2005.) Among 750 children of Myanmar who claimed to remember a previous life 24 spoke about having been Japanese soldiers killed, presumably during World War II. None gave verifiable information, but they all showed unusual behavior, such as insensitivity to pain, dislike of hot weather and, distaste for spicy food, which are typical of Japanese soldiers, but not of Burmese persons. Genetic factors cannot explain these cases; neither can encouragement of such behavior by the children’s parents. Reincarnation is suggested as a third component of human personality illustrated by these cases.
REI34. Some Bodily Malformations Attributed to Previous Lives by Dr. Satwant K. Pasricha, Dr. Jürgen Keil, Dr. Jim B. Tucker, and Dr. Ian Stevenson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 19(3):359-383, 2005.) This two part article examines cases in which children were born with abnormalities that were attributed to wounds from a previous life. Part I presents three cases in which evidence indicated a close correspondence between a child’s birthmark and a wound on a particular deceased person. Part II describes four cases of birth defects that were attributed to previous lives and looks at the evidence supporting that attribution. Photographs of the malformations are included.
REI35. Children who claim to remember previous lives: Past, present, and future research by Dr. Jim B. Tucker. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21(3): pp. 543-552, 2007.) The research with Cases of the Reincarnation Type is reviewed, beginning with Ian Stevenson's initial paper on the phenomenon in 1961. Current projects and planned future projects are also discussed.
REI36. Ian Stevenson and cases of the reincarnation type by Dr. Jim B. Tucker (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22(1);36-43, 2008).
REI37. Children's reports of past-life memories: A review. by Dr. Jim B.Tucker, (EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 4(4):244-248, 2008).
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Book available through the publisher or booksellers:
1. The Near-Death Experience: Problems, Prospects, Perspectives edited by Dr. Bruce Greyson and D. Charles P. Flynn. Charles C Thomas, Publisher. 1984. $49.95 (hardback) ISBN 0-398-05008-2; $34.95 (paper) ISBN 0-398-06362-1. An anthology of scholarly articles that probe the nature, possible explanations, and conjectures of and about the meaning of the near-death experience.
2. Near-death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson, Craighead, W. E., Nemeroff, C. B. (eds.), in Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 3rd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2004. pp. 604-605. ISBN: 0-471-22036-1.
3. The Handbook of Near-Death Experiences: Thirty Years of Investigation by Janice Miner Holden, EdD, Bruce Greyson MD, Debbie James, RN/MSN, Editors, Foreword by Kenneth Ring PhD. Praeger Publishers, 2009. 316 pages. ISBN: 0-313-35864-8. This is a careful overview of published studies about NDEs. The book is built around presentations from the first two days of the 2006 IANDS conference. That event at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston brought together NDE researchers from around the world to discuss the major findings of three decades of exploration into NDEs. The result is this scholarly Handbook of Near-Death Experiences.
Articles on Near-Death Experiences available through the Division of Perceptual Studies:
STE12. Near-Death Experiences: Relevance to the Question of Survival after Death by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of the American Medical Association. 242:265-267, 1979.) A brief review of some published studies of near-death experiences and a discussion of the importance of studying such cases.
NDE2. The Investigation of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Indian Psychology. 2: 7-11, 1979.) A description of a program to seek evidence of survival after death by studying near-death experiences.
STE13. The Phenomenology of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson and Dr. Ian Stevenson. (American Journal of Psychiatry 137:1193-1196, 1980.) Presentation of some data pertaining to 78 reports of near-death experiences studied by the authors.
NDE4. Near-Death Experiences and Attempted Suicide by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Suicide Life-Threat. Behav. 11:10-16, 1981.) A discussion of the reasons near-death experiences may reduce the risk of suicide attempts.
NDE5. Toward a Psychological Explanation of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Anabiosis 1:88-103, 1981.) A discussion of psychological hypotheses proposed to explain near-death experiences.
NDE6. Near-Death Studies, 1981-1982: A Review by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Anabiosis 2:150-158, 1982.) A review of 43 articles on near-death experiences published in scientific journals during 1981-82.
NDE7. Near-Death Experiences and Personal Values by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (American Journal of Psychiatry 140:618-620, 1983.) A study of changes in personal values among 89 survivors of near-death experiences.
NDE8. The Near-Death Experiences Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Validity by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 171:369-375, 1983.) A description of the development and validation of a standardized scale for measuring near-death experiences.
NDE9. The Psychodynamics of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 171:376-381, 1983.) A discussion of psychological mechanisms proposed to play a role in near-death experiences, and objections to and clinical usefulness of a psychological interpretation of near-death experiences. (NOTE: SOME OF THIS MATERIAL APPEARED IN ARTICLE #5 ABOVE.)
NDE10. Increase in Psychic Phenomena Following Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Theta 11:26-29, 1983.) A study of reported psychic phenomena before and after near-death experiences among 69 experiencers.
NDE11. A Typology of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (American Journal of Psychiatry 142:967-969, 1985.) A classification of near-death experiences into 3 different types based on a statistical analysis of 89 experiences.
STE22. Near-Death Experiences in India: A Preliminary Report by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Satwant Pasricha. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 174:165-170, 1986.) A study of 16 cases of persons in India who recovered from near death. The experiences among Indians differ significantly from those among Westerners.
NDE13. Incidence of Near-Death Experiences Following Attempted Suicide by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 16:40-45, 1986.) A study of near-death experiences among 61 survivors of attempted suicide.
NDE14. Clinical Approaches to the Near-Death Experience by Dr. Bruce Greyson and B. Harris). (Journal of Near-Death Stud. 6:41-52, 1987.) Guidelines for clinical interventions with near-death experiencers, based on an interdisciplinary conference of clinicians and experiencers.
NDE15. Can Science Explain the Near-Death Experience? by Dr. Bruce Greyson (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 8:77-92, 1989.) A discussion of the types of questions about near-death experiences that scientific studies can and cannot answer.
STE30. Are Persons Reporting "Near-Death Experiences" Really Near Death? A Study of Medical Records by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Emily Williams Cook, and Dr. Nicholas McClean-Rice. (Omega 20:45-54, 1989-1990.) Report of an analysis of medical records pertaining to 40 persons reporting near-death experiences, showing that over half of the subjects had not been near death at the time of their NDE.
NDE17. Near-Death Encounters With and Without Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 8:151-161, 1990.) A study comparing 183 persons who had near-death experiences with 63 persons who came close to death but did not have near-death experiences, using the NDE Scale described in Article #8 above.
STE36. Features of "Near-Death Experience" in Relation to Whether or Not Patients Were Near Death by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Justine E. Owens, and Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (The Lancet 336:1175-1177, 1990.) The authors compare the features of the experiences of 28 patients who came close to death with 30 patients who were not close to death but had similar experiences.
NDE19. Near-Death Experiences Precipitated by Suicide Attempt: Lack of Influence of Psychopathology, Religion, and Expectations by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies 9:183-188, 1991.) A study examining the association between near-death experiences and psychopathology, religious background, and expectations of death and dying among 61 survivors of attempted suicide.
NDE20. Near-Death Experiences and Systems Theories: A Biosociological Approach to Mystical States by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Mind and Behavior. 12:487-500, 1991.) A discussion of a biosociological model that seeks to explain near-death experiences in terms of information theories and systems theories.
NDE21. Distressing Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson and N. E. Bush. (Psychiatry 55:95-110, 1992.) A discussion of the different types of unpleasant or frightening near-death experiences.
NDE22. Reduced Death Threat in Near-Death Experiencers by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Death Studies. 16:523-536, 1992.) A study of how threatening death appears to be, comparing 135 near-death experiencers with 43 persons who have come close to death but not had near-death experiences and 112 persons who have not come close to death.
NDE23. Near-Death Experiences and Anti-Suicidal Attitudes by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Omega 26:81-89, 1992-93.) A study of anti-suicidal attitudes among 150 near-death experiencers and 43 persons who have come close to death but not had near-death experiences.
NDE24. Near-Death Experiences and the Physio-Kundalini Syndrome by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Religion and Health 32:277-290, 1993.) A study of physiological symptoms of kundalini awakening among 153 near-death experiencers, 55 persons who have come close to death but not had near-death experiences, and 113 persons who have not come close to death.
NDE25. Varieties of Near-Death Experience by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Psychiatry 56:390-399, 1993.) A discussion of the different types of near-death experience, and a study of the association of these types with demographic and situational factors among 246 persons who have come close to death.
NDE26. Experiencias Cercanas a la Muerte y Suicido by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Mas Alla de la Ciencias Monogr. #6, pp. 49-53, 1993.) (In Spanish.) A discussion of near-death experiences following attempted suicide and the effect of the experience on further suicidal thinking.
STE41. The Absence of Tunnel Sensations in Near-Death Experiences from India by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Allen Kellehear, Dr. Satwant Pasricha, and Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 13(2):109-113, 1994.) This paper presents data contradicting the assumption that near-death experiences are similar all over the world. In fact, they show strong influences from different cultures. Tunnels, which are frequently reported for Western cases, do not occur in Indian ones.
NDE28. Near-Death Experiences and Satisfaction With Life by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 13:103-108, 1994.) A study of satisfaction with life among 126 near-death experiencers, 40 persons who have come close to death but not had a near-death experience, and 109 persons who have not come close to death.
STE42. Involuntary Memories During Severe Physical Illness or Injury by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 183:452-458, 1995.) A review of 117 cases of persons who, when near death or when they thought they were about to die, had the experience of seeing earlier events of their life suddenly coming into consciousness.
NDE30. The Near-Death Experience as a Focus of Clinical Attention by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 185:327-334, 1997.) A discussion of differential diagnosis and treatment strategies for mental and emotional problems that are related to near-death experiences.
STE46. Do Any Near-Death Experiences Provide Evidence for the Survival of Human Personality After Death? Relevant Features and Illustrative Case Reports by Dr. Emily Williams Cook, Dr. Bruce Greyson, and Dr. Ian Stevenson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 12:377-406, 1998.) Three features of NDEs that may support the survival hypothesis are discussed, followed by a presentation of 14 cases with some or all of these features.
NDE32. Biological Aspects of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 42:14-32, 1998.) A review of biological aspects of near-death experiences, including predisposing factors, phenomenology, and aftereffects; and a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of psychological and physiological hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations of NDEs.
NDE33. The Incidence of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Medical Psychiatry 1:92-99, 1998.) A critical review of all the published estimates of the frequency of near-death experiences, summarizing the methodological problems and other reasons for discrepancies.
NDE34. Defining Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Mortality 4:7-19, 1999.) A critical review of attempts to define near-death experiences.
NDE35. Dissociation in People Who Have Had Near-Death Experiences: Out of Their Bodies or Out of Their Minds? by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (The Lancet 355:460-63, 2000.) This study finds that near-death experiencers report more dissociation than do people who come close to death without NDEs, but this does not reflect a clinical dissociative disorder.
STE50. Can Experiences Near Death Furnish Evidence of Life after Death? by Dr. Emily Williams Kelly, Dr. Bruce Greyson, and Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Omega 40:513-519, 1999-2000.) Single features of an experience near death do not suggest survival after death; they may have other explanations. The authors suggest, however, that when three features occur together, the experience does suggest survival. The features are: enhanced mental processes, seeing the physical body from another position in space, and paranormal perceptions.
KEL13. Near-Death Experiences with Reports of Meeting Deceased People by Dr. Emily Williams Kelly. (Death Studies 25:229-249, 2001.) This article compares the hypothesis that near-death experiences are evidence of survival after death with some nonsurvival interpretations of NDEs by examining reports of having seen deceased persons during an NDE.
NDE37. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 71:368-373, 2001.) This study finds that near-death experiencers report more intrusive memories of their close brush with death than do people who come close to death without NDEs, but that this does not reflect a clinical posttraumatic stress disorder.
NDE38.Incidence and Correlates of Near-Death Experiences in a Cardiac Care Unit by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (General Hospital Psychiatry 25:269-276, 2003.) This article describes a 3-year study of 1,595 patients hospitalized in a cardiac care unit, in which 10% of patients with cardiac arrest and 1% of patients with other heart problems had NDEs.
NDE39. Near-Death Experiences in a Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic Population by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Psychiatric Services, 54:1649-1651, 2003.) This article describes a survey of NDEs among psychiatric outpatients. The incidence of NDEs in this sample was comparable to that in the general population, and patients with NDEs reported less psychological distress than did patients who had come close to death without having NDEs.
NDE40. Auditory Hallucinations Following Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson and Dr. Mitchell Liester. (Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 44:320-336, 2004.) This article describes a survey on inner voices heard by NDErs following their experiences. Experiencers’ attitudes toward these voices were overwhelmingly positive, unlike the overwhelmingly negative attitudes of psychiatric patients toward their hallucinations. Inner voices are common following NDEs, and are highly valued by those who hear them.
NDE41.The Life Changes Inventory- Revised by Dr. Bruce Greyson and Dr. Kenneth Ring. ( Journal of Near-Death Studies , 23 (1), Fall 2004.) This article describes the historical development of Dr. Ring's Life Changes Inventory, a self-rating instrument to measure value changes following an NDE, and presents an updated and revised version of the scale.
NDE42. A Rasch Scaling Validation of a ‘Core’ Near-Death Experience by Dr. R. Lange , Dr. Bruce Greyson, and Dr. J. Houran. ( British Journal of Psychology, 95, 161-177, 2004.) This article validates Dr. Greyson's NDE Scale using the Rasch statistical model, and demonstrates that the scale yields a unidimensional measure with interval-scaling properties. With this scale, NDEs show a consistent pattern, unaffected by external variables or by intensity of the experience.
NDE43. "False Positive" Claims of Near-Death Experiences and "False Negative" Denials of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Death Studies, 29, 145-155, 2005.) This article evaluates "false positive" claims of people who say they have had NDEs even though their experiences do not meet research criteria for NDEs, and "false negative" denials of people who deny having had NDEs even though their experiences do meet research criteria for NDEs. The experiences of "false positive" claimants and of "false negative" deniers differ from the experiences of "true positive" claimants who did have NDEs and of "true negative" deniers who did not have NDEs. The frequencies of "false positive" claims and of "false negative" denials are influenced by prior knowledge of NDEs and other psychological factors.
NDE44. Postcesarean Pulmonary Embolism, Sustained Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Embolectomy, and Near-Death Experience by Dr. Alan Marty, Dr. Frank Hilton, Dr. Robert Spear, and Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Obstetrics & Gynecology, 106, 1153-1155, 2005.) This article describes the resuscitation of a woman whose heart stopped due to massive blood clots in her lungs after giving birth by cesarean section, and who later reported a profound NDE while her heart was stopped.
NDE45. Do Prevailing Societal Models Influence Reports of Near-Death Experiences? A Comparison of Accounts Reported Before and After 1975 by Dr. Geena Athappilly, Dr. Bruce Greyson, & Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 194, 218-222, 2006.) This article compares the phenomenology of 24 NDEs that were reported prior to Dr. Raymond Moody's introduction of the term "NDE" in 1975 with 24 recently reported NDEs, matched on relevant demographic and situational variables. Tunnel phenomena were reported more frequently in the recent NDEs, but 14 other features described by Moody were reported as frequently in the pre-1975 NDEs as they were in the recent cases. This consistency in NDEs reported before and after Moody described the "typical" NDE suggests that NDEs reports have not been substantially influenced by prevailing cultural models.
NDE46. Near-Death Experiences and Spirituality by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science, 41, 393-414, 2006.) This article reviews the similarities between NDEs and mystical experiences, the evidence for the lack of influence of prior religiosity or spirituality on NDEs, the evidence for the influence of NDEs on subsequent religiosity and spirituality, and the religious and spiritual implications of NDEs for humankind.
NDE47. Failure to Elicit Near-Death Experiences in Induced Cardiac Arrest, by Dr. Bruce Greyson, Dr. Janice Holden, and Dr. Paul Mounsey. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 25, 85-98, 2006). This article describes a study attempting to test the accuracy of out-of-body perceptions during cardiac arrest induced during surgical implantation of automatic implantable cardioverters/defibrillators (ICDs), electrical devices that automatically detect cardiac arrest and administer an electrical shock to return the heart to normal rhythm. In a series of 52 induced cardiac arrests, no patient reported having had a near-death or out-of-body experience. The article discusses possible reasons that no NDEs occurred in these induced cardiac arrests.
NDE47A. Dissociative and psychotic experiences in Brazilian Spiritist mediums [Letter], by A. Moreira-Almeida, F. L Neto, and Dr. Bruce Greyson, (Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 57-58, 2006). This letter to the editor describes a study of dissociative and hallucinatory experiences reported by 115 Brazilian spiritist mediums. These experiences, which include apparent communications with deceased entities, should not be considered pathological because they occur in the cultural context of a religious ritual and are associated with good social adjustment and mental health.
NDE47B. Does the arousal system contribute to near-death experience?[Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson and J.P. Long (Neurology, 67, 2265, 2006). The letter to the editor critiques the research by Kevin Nelson and colleagues purporting to show a link between “REM intrusion” and NDEs. The Nelson study used an atypical sample of NDErs, an inappropriate comparison group, and different procedures for eliciting “REM intrusion” symptoms from the two groups that likely biased the results; and the authors drew conclusions not supported by their data and ignored data contradicting their conclusions.
NDE48. Consistency of Near-Death Experience Accounts Over Two Decades: Are Reports Embellished Over Time? by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Resuscitation, 73, 407-411, 2007.) This article examines whether experiencers' reports of their NDEs were embellished over a 20-year period, as measured by their scores on the standardized NDE Scale when they first reported their experiences and again two decades later. NDE reports did not change over this time period, and the differences in NDE Scale scores between the first and second administration was not related to the length of the intervening time interval. These data suggest that memories of NDEs are more stable than memories of other events, and that studying NDE that occurred years ago can yield valid information.
NDE49. Near-death experiences: Clinical implications, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 34, suppl 1, 49-57, 2007.) (available in English and in Portuguese). This literature review examines the evidence for and against proposed medical explanation for NDEs and their similarities to and differences from mental disorders; and data regarding changes in attitudes, beliefs, and values following NDEs, including problematic changes and recommended therapeutic interventions.
NDE50. Comments on "Does paranormal perception occur in near-death experiences?" by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 25, 237-244, 2007). This article responds to Keith Augustine's critique of studies of veridical perception in NDEs, acknowledging problems in NDE research methodology but offering data to rebut the mistaken assumptions and misinterpretations on which much of the criticism is based.
NDE51. The mystical impact of near-death experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Shift, 17, 8-13, 2007).The article reviews the spiritual transformative effects of NDEs, and studies of spirituality before and after NDEs.
NDE52. Commentary on "Cultural and physiological correlates undermining a survivalist interpretation of near-death experiences." by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 26, 127-145, 2007). This article responds to Keith Augustine's critique of a transcendental interpretation of NDEs, acknowledging problems in NDE research methodology but offering data to rebut the mistaken assumptions and misinterpretations on which much of the criticism is based.
NDE53. Articles of interest, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. [Review of "Stimulating illusory own-body perceptions," by Blanke, O., Ortigue, S., Landis, T., and Seeck, M., and of "Does the arousal system contribute to near death experience?" by Nelson, K. R., Mattingly, M., Lee, S. A., and Schmitt, F. A.]. (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21, 213-215, 2007). This review critiques the study by Olaf Blanke and colleagues that confused illusions of feeling out of the body induced by electrical brain stimulation with spontaneous out-of-body experiences, which share few similarities with the induced illusions and differ from them in important ways. It also critiques the research by Kevin Nelson and colleagues purporting to show a link between “REM intrusion” and NDEs, detailing problems in the methodology and interpretation of that study.
NDE54. The NDE Scale [Letter], by Bruce Greyson (Skeptical Inquirer, 31(5), 67, 2007).
NDE55. Ian Stevenson [Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson, (Skeptical Inquirer, 31(5), 67, 2007).
NDE56. Response to Augustine's "Does paranormal perception occur in near-death experiences?" [Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 26, 67-70, 2007). This article responds to Keith Augustine's critique of accurate out-of-body perception during NDEs, which largely ignored the published literature supporting the reality of OBE perception.
NDE57. Ian Stevenson's contributions to near-death studies, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 54-63, 2008). This article reviews Ian Stevenson’s contributions to near-death studies, including his work on the phenomenology of NDE, their implications for the survival question, and research methodology.
NDE58. Visualizing out-of-body experience in the brain [Letter], by Drs. Bruce Greyson, Sam Parnia, and P. Fenwick, (New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 855-856, 2008). This letter to the editor critiques a report by Dirk De Ridder and colleagues describing a sense of disembodiment induced by electrical brain stimulation, which was quite different phenomenologically from spontaneous out-of-body experiences.
NDE59. The near-death experience [Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson, (Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 14(3), 14, 2008). This letter to the editor critiques an article by Süster Strubelt and Uwe Maas comparing NDEs with ritual trances induced by Iboga in Gabonese healing rituals. Strubelt and Maas proposed a hypothetical neurobiological mechanism to explain Iboga intoxication that has little if any relevance to NDEs.
NDE60. Articles of interest, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (2008). [Review of “The Near-Death Experience: A Cerebellar Method to Protect Body and Soul – Lessons from the Iboga Healing Ceremony in Gabon” by Strubelt, S., and Maas, U.]. (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 447-448, 2008). This letter to the editor critiques an article by Süster Strubelt and Uwe Maas comparing NDEs with ritual trances induced by Iboga in Gabonese healing rituals. Strubelt and Maas proposed a hypothetical neurobiological mechanism to explain Iboga intoxication that has little if any relevance to NDEs.
NDE61. Terminal lucidity in patients with chronic schizophrenia and dementia: A survey of the literature, by Michael Nahm and Dr. Bruce Greyson (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197, 942-944, 2009). This article summarizes 81 published case reports of the unexpected and unexplained return of mental clarity and memory shortly before death, in patients who had lost their mental faculties for many years as a result of chronic schizophrenia or dementia.
NDE62. Implications of near-death experiences for a postmaterialist psychology, by Dr. Bruce Greyson (Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2, 37-45, 2010). This article describes NDE features that challenge materialist reductionism and support a new model of consciousness that is more compatible with contemporary physics.
Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century by Edward F. Kelly, Emily Williams Kelly, Adam Crabtree, Alan Gauld, Michael Grosso, and Bruce Greyson. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Winter, 2007. 800 pages. ISBN 0-7425-4792-2. Included with the volume is a CD of F.W.H. Myers's two-volume 1903 classic Human Personality. Irreducible Mind is now available in soft cover too for $34.95. The soft cover version does not include the CD of Human Personality.
Current mainstream scientific opinion holds that all aspects of human mind and consciousness are generated by physical processes occuring in the brain. This book presents empirical evidence that this reductive materialism is not only incomplete but false. Topics addressed include phenomena of extreme psychophysical influence, memory, psychological automatisms and secondary personality, near-death experiences and allied phenomena, genius-level creativity, and mystical states of consciousness both spontaneous and drug-induced. The authors show that these rogue phenomena are more readily accommodated by an alternative 'transmission' or 'filter' theory of mind/brain relations - a theory that ratifies the commonsense conception of human beings as causally effective conscious agents, and is also fully compatible with leading-edge physics and neuroscience. The book should command the attention of all open-minded persons concerned with the still-unsolved mysteries of the mind. Click here for a brief summary of chapter contents.
"Brilliant, heroic, and astonishing...IRREDUCIBLE MIND has a bottom-line: either our current understanding of the material world is woefully incomplete because we still don't know how to explain mental powers in purely physical terms, or else there is far more to reality than just the material world"
Click here for more reviews. Irreducible Mind was developed under the auspices of the Center for Theory and Research at Esalen Institute, and Esalen's management has taken the unprecedented step of endorsing the book.
A World in a Grain of Sand: The Clairvoyance of Stefan Ossowiecki by Mary Rose Barrington with Ian Stevenson and Zofia Weaver. McFarland & Company, 2005. 200 pages. ISBN: 0-7864-2112-6. Dr. Ian Stevenson has collaborated with Mary Rose Barrington and Zofia Weaver to produce this book about Polish engineer and industrialist, Stefan Ossowiecki (1877-1944) who was perhaps the most gifted psychic to ever come under the scrutiny of researchers. The range and quality of his clairvoyance has not been exceeded by anyone else under experimental controls. Very rarely, with the exception of Ossowiecki, has anyone been able to demonstrate these psychic faculties with enough accuracy and reliability to produce significant results in repeated experimentation.
The Following book is not currently in print and not available from the division (although it may be available through libraries or used book sellers):
1. Telepathic Impressions: A Review and Report of 35 New Cases by Dr. Ian Stevenson. University Press of Virginia, 1970. Impression cases are those which involve no visual images, but only an impression (strong emotion, physical symptoms, etc.) that something is happening to another person who is a considerable distance away. In most cases the "target" person is in some serious situation--seriously ill, injured in an accident, or close to death.
Articles on other related topics available through the Division of Perceptual Studies:
STE5. Are Poltergeists Living or Are They Dead? by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 66:233-252, 1972.) Brief report of 3 cases involving unexplained movements of objects and (in 2 of the cases) associated apparitional experiences.
STE4 Research into the Evidence of Man's Survival after Death by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 165:152-170, 1977.) A summary of the history of research on the question of survival.
OTH3. Telepathy in Mental Illness: Deluge or Delusion? by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 165:184-200, 1977.) A study of claimed telepathic abilities among psychiatric patients.
STE8. Some Comments on Automatic Writing by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 72:315-332, 1978.) A consideration of some possible explanations of automatic writing, as well as some of the hazards involved.
STE14. Can We Describe the Mind? by Dr. Ian Stevenson (in Research in Parapsychology 1980, ed. by Dr. W. G. Roll & Dr. J. Beloff, pp. 130-142.) In his 1980 Presidential Address to the Parapsychological Association, Dr. Stevenson discusses the properties of minds and speculates about the implications of these for the nature of survival after death.
STE10. The Contribution of Apparitions to the Evidence for Survival by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 76:341-358, 1982.) A review of cases of apparitions and several interpretations of them.
STE11. Cryptomnesia and Parapsychology by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 52:1-30, 1983.) An examination of cryptomnesia, the phenomenon of forgetting or being unaware that one has learned information from a natural source, and its relevance to parapsychology.
STE18. Do We Need a New Word to Supplement "Hallucination"? by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (American Journal of Psychiatry 140:1609-1611, 1983.) A suggestion to distinguish the unshared sensory experiences of the mentally ill (hallucinations) from those, often paranormal, of normal persons.
KEL3. The Survival Question: Impasse or Crux? by Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (Journal of the American Society of Psychical Research 81:125-139, 1986.) Survival research has long been caught in a debate about whether the best relevant data should be interpreted as evidence for survival of consciousness after death or as evidence for psi abilities of living persons. The debate has contributed to a widespread abandonment of survival research by parapsychologists, but the author argues that it can and should instead lead to renewed research designed to test the rival hypotheses.
STE24. "Psychic Surgery" in the Philippines as a Form of Group Hypnosis by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Nagato Azuma. (American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 31:61-67, 1988.) A study of "minor surgery" performed by Filipino "psychic surgeons" who remove small superficial tumors rapidly and without anesthesia or antiseptic precautions. The patients seem to feel no pain, have little or no bleeding and heal rapidly.
STE28. Guest Editorial: Was the Attempt to Identify Parapsychology as a Separate Field of Science Misguided? by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 82:309-317, 1988.) Dr. Stevenson explains why he believes that a mistake was made in trying to identify a scientific discipline by the term parapsychology. The implied claim was too pretentious and has increased instead of reduced the isolation of scientists who call themselves parapsychologists from other scientists.
STE32. Two Tests of Survival after Death: Report on Negative Results by Dr. Ian Stevenson, A. Oram, and B. Markwick) (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 55: 329-336, 1989.) A report discussing the survival tests left by Dr. Robert Thouless and Dr. Gaither Pratt, two eminent parapsychologists, and the failure thus far to obtain any postmortem communications leading to the solution of these tests.
STE33. Thoughts on the Decline of Major Paranormal Phenomena by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 57:149-162, 1990.) In his 1989 Presidential Address to the(British) Society for Psychical Research, Dr. Stevenson notes that reports of major paranormal events have declined since the early years of the SPR, and he discusses some of the possible reasons for this decline.
STE35. The Case of Giuseppe Riccardi: An Unusual Drop-In Communicator in Italy by Dr. Ian Stevenson, S. Ravaldini, and M. Biondi. (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 56:257-265, 1990.) Report of a mediumistic sitting held in Tuscany, Italy, where a communicator identified himself as a priest from Canton, Ohio. Investigation by the authors led to the verification of this priest's identity, and the authors examine the question of whether the medium could have obtained this information normally.
STE37. A Series of Possibly Paranormal Recurrent Dreams by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 6:281-289, 1992.) Report of 4 dreams involving the dreamer's deceased father and possibly stimulated by the dreamer's paranormal awareness of unfinished business concerning the disposition of his father's body.
OTH16. The Physio-Kundalini Syndrome and Mental Illness by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. 25:43-58, 1993.) A study of physiological symptoms of kundalini awakening among 138 psychiatric patients, comparing their responses to those groups studied in Article #24 from list of articles on near-death experiences.
KEL7. The Subliminal Consciousness: F.H.W. Myers's Approach to the Problem of Survival by Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (Journal of Parapsychology 58:40-58, 1994.) Frederic Myers, a 19th century founder of the field now known as parapsychology, approached the question of survival after death as part of the larger problem of the nature of consciousness, especially as it relates to the question of whether consciousness is produced by the brain or is filtered and transmitted by the brain. The author reviews some of Myers's ideas about the relationship between mind and matter and about the kind of empirical studies needed to address the question of survival.
STE43. Six Modern Apparitional Experiences by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 9:351-366, 1995.) Reports of six apparitional experiences in which the subjects were healthy persons who reported having unexpectedly seen deceased persons. The experiences occurred close to the time of death of the appearing figures or at the time another person was dying. Details of the investigations of the cases are given.
STE44. Guest Column: On the Necessity of Medical Documents in Claims of Paranormal Phenomena in Diseases by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 10(2):299-306, 1996.) This article addresses the problem of spontaneous recoveries from life-threatening illnesses. Some of these may be attributable to the faith in healing of the patient; others may require alternative explanations. Reports of spontaneous recoveries are of no value unless accompanied by adequate medical documentation.
OTH21. Distance Healing of Patients with Major Depression by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 10:447-65, 1996.) A double blind, controlled study of healing from a distance by meditators trained in the LeShan technique, in 40 patients with depression.
KEL9. Survival Research Today: An Essay Review of Parapsychology and Thanatology by Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (Journal of Parapsychology 60:343-355, 1996.) and Dr. Cook's Reply to Comments on Her Review of Parapsychology and Thanatology (Journal of Parapsychology 61:159-167, 1997). In an essay review of the proceedings of a 1993 conference on survival research and in a reply to comments on that review, the author argues that too many people addressing the survival problem today have evaded the key issues and problems behind the attempt to find empirical means to evaluate the question of whether personal consciousness survives the death of the physical body.
STE48. What Are the Irreducible Components of the Scientific Enterprise? by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 13(2):257-270, 1999.) This essay suggests that certain features commonly identified with scientific research are not essential. Examples of dispensable features are experimental conditions, predictions, and falsifiability of hypotheses. The essential condition is repeated testing of hypotheses against observations. The essay also addresses the problem of gaining acceptance among scientists for new hypotheses.
OTH23. Some Neuropsychological Correlates of the Physio-Kundalini Syndrome by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 32:123-34, 2000.). A correlational study of cerebral dominance, temporal-limbic hyperconnection, fantasy-proneness, absorption, and dissociation among 321 persons reporting various degrees of kundalini arousal.